|Criteria for Use of the Term "Halal"
The guideline mentioned above points out that the term halal may be used for foods which are considered lawful. Under the Islamic Law, all sources of food are lawful except the following sources, including their products and derivatives which are considered unlawful:
1. Food of animal origin
2. Food of plant origin. Intoxicating and hazardous plants except where the toxin or hazard can be eliminated during processing.
4. Food additives. All food additives derived from item 1, 2 and 3.
Islamic Law also regulates the slaughtering procedure of lawful animal. This is explained by the guideline that all lawful land animals should be slaughtered in compliance with the rules laid down in the Codex Recommended Code of Hygienic Practice for Fresh Meat (CAC/RCP 11, Rev. 1-1993) and the following requirements:
1. The person should be a Muslim who is mentally sound and knowledgeable of the Islamic slaughtering procedures.
2. The animal to be slaughtered should be lawful according to Islamic Law.
3. The animal to be slaughtered should be alive or deemed to be alive at the time of slaughtering.
4. The phrase "Bismillah" (In the Name of Allah) should be invoked immediately before the slaughter of each animal.
5. The slaughtering device should be sharp and should not be lifted off the animal during the slaughter act.
6. The slaughter act should sever the trachea, aoesophagus and main arteries and veins of the neck region.
Production of halal products requires certain raw materials, additives, process, handling, and transportation to meet the criteria of the term of halal as mentioned above. In addition, the industry should have a good system in order to assure that the products meet this requirement forever and no mistake can be made during the production period. The system called Halal Assurance System (HAS) proposed by Apriyantono (2001) can be adopted. This system consists of 5 components:
1. Standard of halal management and halal system. Halal management is managing of all the function and activities necessary to determine and achieve halal products. Halal system is defined as the organisational structure, responsibilities, procedures, activities, capabilities and resources that together aim to ensure that products, processes or service will satisfy stated or implied aims, i.e., production of halal products.
2. Standard audit of halal system. Basically, standard audit of halal system is conducted to:
3. Haram Analysis Critical Control Point (HrACCP). A system which could point out the critical points where haram or najees (najasa) materials may contaminate halal materials, as well as preventing haram materials to be used for the production of halal foods. There are 6 elements which go to make an HrACCP system:
4. Halal guideline. This consists of general regulation of halal foods and standards procedures of production of halal foods. In addition, specific regulation and procedures may be added, for example, in the case of food additive production.
5. Halal database. It consists of list of materials used for food production; information of the source and preparation of each material is mentioned in the list as well as its halal status and other important information.